AMIE RANDOM NOTES FOR EXAM – FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGN & MANUFACTURING

1)

IDENTIFYING NEEDS

  • STARTING POINT OF ANY DESIGN PROCESS
  • TOOLS USED : DISCIPLINED CREATIVITY,ACUTE OBSERVATIONAL POWER & PIN POINT INFERENCE
  • NEED IS AN EMPTY SPACE WHICH ATTEMPTS TO ORGANIZE ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITIES THROUGH FULFILLING THE SPACE.
  • PRELIMINARY NEED STATEMENT : GENERAL,CLEAR AND COMPLETE DEFINITION WHICH GO ACCORDING WITH SPECIFICATIONS(FOR NORMAL FUNCTIONING) AND STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE( COMPARED WITH OTHER COMPETITORS)
  • FIRM KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ONES RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND COULD COPE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

ROLE OF NEEDS IN DESIGN PROCESS

  • STARTING POINT OF DESIGN PROCESS
  • ONCE FULFILLED,CUSTOMER IS SATISFIED

PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION,MANUFACTURING SPECIFICATION & SALES SPECIFICATION

SPECIFICATIONS ARE DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS

  • PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION : (CHARACTERISTICS,CAPABILITIES & LIMITATIONS)
  1. DESCRIPTION
  2. DESIGN LIFE
  3. RATE OF DEGRADATION
  4. OUTPUT
  5. RELIABILITY
  6. EFFECTS OF PERFORMANCE ON ENVIRONMENT
  • MANUFACTURING SPECIFICATION (DESCRIPTION OF EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR MANUFACTURE)
  1. COMPONENT,SUB ASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS
  2. DRAWING AND DETAILS OF TOOLS
  3. CALIBRATION REQUIREMENTS
  4. MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
  5. INSTRUCTION OF PROCESSING AND METHOD OF TESTING
  6. INSTRUCTION OF TESTING INCOMING MATERIALS
  7. SPECIFICATION OF BOUGHT IN MATERIALS
  8. INSTRUCTION FOR ASSEMBLY AND PACKAGING
  9. INSTRUCTIONS FOR STORAGE AND TRANSPORT
  10. INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS AND CUSTOMER TRAINING
  11. DETAILS OF COMPANY,TRADE ,NATIONAL OR INTERNATIONAL STANDARD RELEVANT TO THE PRODUCT.
  • SALES SPECIFICATIONS ( INFORMATION NECESSARY FOR THE CUSTOMER TO KNOW IF THE PRODUCT IS SUITED FOR HIS /HER NEEDS)
  1. AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE PRODUCT’S APPEARANCE
  2. A STATEMENT OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND CLAIMS
  3. THE DIMENSIONS OR OTHER FEATURES NECESSARY
  4. PROMISES AFTER SALES SERVICES,ECONOMY,MAINTAINABILITY,SAFETY AND RELIABILITY.

DESIGN BY EVOLUTION & EXAMPLES

  1. TO OVERCOME SOME DIFFICULTY FACED BY THE USER OR TO ADD SOME NEW FEATURES TO INCREASE ITS USEFULNESS ,DESIGN BY EVOLUTION CAME TO EXISTENCE.
  2. EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS WAS SLOW YET IT WAS USED.

BICYCLES,CALCULATORS,COMPUTING DEVICES,STEAM LOCOMOTIVES, AIRPLANES ETC WENT THROUGH THE EVOLUTION WHEN DESIGNERS TRIED A SERIES OF CONCEPT ONE AFTER THE OTHER.

STANDARD OF PERFORMANCE AND DIFFERENCE WITH STANDARDIZATION

STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE DEPENDS ON RELIABILITY LEVEL,SAFETY,CONVENIENCE IN USE,MAINTAINABIITY ETC

STANDARDIZATION IS FOR THE COMPONENTS THAT MAKES THE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AS PER REQUIREMENTS EASILY

2)

STEPS OF DESIGN THROUGH MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITH AN EXAMPLE.

METHOD OF SEARCHING FOR IDEAS THAT PROVIDE MORE ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION FOR A FUNCTION.A MORPHOLOGICAL MATRIX MAY BE CREATED TO SPECIFY THE FUNCTION AND THE POSSIBLE ALTERNATE SOLUTIONS

STEPS ARE

1.FEASIBILITY STUDY

2.PRELIMINARY DESIGN TO FIND ALTERNATE SOLUTIONS AND CHOOSE THE BEST ONE.

3.DETAIL DESIGN TO REACH THE PROTOTYPE.

4.PLANNING PRODUCTION

5.PLANNING DISTRIBUTION

6.PLANNING CONSUMPTION

7.PLANNING FOR OBSOLESCENCE OF THE PRODUCT.

AN EXAMPLE WOULD BE PICKING ,PACKAGING AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD.

CONCEPT OF DESIGN CHECK FOR CLARITY,SIMPLICITY AND SAFETY WITH SUITABLE DIAGRAMS AND EXAMPLE

CLARITY REFERS TO ORGANIZING CONTENT SO THAT THE IDEA CAN BE CONVEYED.IT RELIES ON GESTALT LAWS WHICH EXPLAINS HOW HUMANS PERCEIVE OBJECTS AND THINGS.SHAPE ,SIZE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTICULAR OBJECT IS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION .

SIMPLICITY IS ACHIEVED BY DIGGING THROUGH THE COMPLEXITY TO MAKE IT SIMPLE.SO ASSEMBLY AND MAINTENANCE SHALL BE SIMPLE

SAFETY LOOKS AT POTENTIAL HAZARDS.THAT ENSURE OPERATORS COMFORT,REDUCE HAZARDS WHICH HELPS IN CUSTOMERS ACCEPTANCE.

PLANNING OF OBSOLESCENCE PRODUCT AS AN IMPORTANT STEP IN PRODUCT DESIGN AND HOW IT IS BEING MADE

DESIGNING A PRODUCT WITH ARTIFICIALLY LIMITED LIFE SO THAT IT BECOMES OBSOLETE AFTER SOME TIME.

THE STEP IS TO ENSURE REPEAT PURCHASES

SHORTAGE IN LIFE SPAN SEEK FOR REPLACEMENTS SO THAT SELLING GOES ON.

BRAINSTORMING SESSION AND ITS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

A GROUP ATTEMPTS TO FIND OUT A WORKABLE SOLUTION FOR A SPECIFIC PROBLEM BY ACCUMULATING SPONTANEOUS CONTRIBUTIONS BY EXPERTS IN THE GROUP.IDEA GENERATION FROM PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS WORKING ON THE SAME PROBLEM TO ARRIVE AT A GENERAL SOLUTION BUT EVALUATION IS NOT DONE.

TO GET THE MAXIMUM BENEFIT ,

EVERY MEMBER IN ROTATION IS ASKED FOR IDEAS

ONE IDEA PER TURN

HAVING NO IDEA YOU PASS TO OTHER

NO IDEA IS STUPID.SO NO CRITICIZATION

HUMOUR ALLOWED SO THAT MEMBERS FEEL FREE TO OPEN UP

LEADER SUMMARIZES AND GUIDE MEMBERS TO HELP IN CLARITY AND EXPRESSION

NO EVALUATION OF IDEAS DURING THE SESSION

PROJECTION AND BLACKBOARD COULD BE USED

VOTING AFTER THE SESSION TO CONSDER THE IDEAS TO PUT FORWARD FOR DETAILED DISCUSSION

SESSION IS GOOD FOR WORK AREAS TO IDENTIFY PROBLEMS

MEMBERS CAN ASK THEMSELVES WHAT?WHY?WHEN?WHERE?WHO?AND HOW?

AN OUTSIDER WHO JOINS IN MAY BE ASKED TO JOIN IN THE DISCUSSION

AGENDA DISTRIBUTED TO MEMBERS PRIOR TO THE MEETING

KEEP RECORDS FOR FUTURE REFERENCES

MODULAR AND ROBUST DESIGN

 MODULAR DIVISION SUBDIVIDES A SYSTEM INTO SMALLER PARTS CALLED MODULES.MODULES CAN BE INDEPENDENTLY CREATED,MODIFIED,REPLACED OR EXCHANGED BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS.

ROBUST PRODUCT DESIGN TRIES TO REDUCE VARIATION IN FINISHED PRODUCTS.SO FINISHED PRODUCT MAINTAIN THE CONSISTENCY EVEN WHEN TH FACTORS INTERFERE WITH THE PRODUCTION PROCESS.

3)

MOLDING SAND CLASSIFICATION & THE BASIC TESTS FOR MOLDING SANDS

GREEN SAND: SILICA WITH CLAY(15-30 %) AND WATER (6-8%)MAKING IT WET TO MAKE A MOLD..

DRIED SAND IS DRIED GREEN SAND.

LOAM SAND: HAVE 50 % CLAY

PARTING SAND IS USED TO HELP GREEN SAND NOT STICK TO THE WALL OF MOLD.IT IS MADE OF DRY SILICA ,BURNT CHARCOAL OR OTHER PARTING COMPOUNDS

FACING SAND:IT IS PUT OVER THE PATTERN BEFORE METAL IS POURED INTO THE MOLD.SO IT BECOMES THE FACE OF THE MOLD SO THAT MOLTEN METAL WONT COME IN CONTACT DIRECTLY WITH THE PATTERN.IT IS NORMAL FLOOR SAND

BACKING SAND IS USED TO FILL UP THE REST OF THE PORTIONS OF THE FLASK.IT CONTAINS SAND WHICH IS REPEATEDLY USED .

SYSTEM SAND:IS USED IN MECHANICAL FOUNDRARIES TO FILL THE FLASK AND NO FACING SAND MAY BE USED.

CORE SAND OR OIL SAND IS USED TO MAKE CORE.SILICA SAND AND CORE OIL IS USED.

PERMANENT MOLD CASTING AND SAND CASTING.COMMON MATERIAL USED FOR SAND CASTING.

PERMANENT MOLD CASTING EXMPLOYS RESUSABLE OR PERMANENT MOLDS USUALLY MADE FROM METAL

SAND CASTING MOLDS ARE MADE USING SAND AND NOT REUSABLE

IMPORTANCE OF PATTERN CODE AND SOME PROMINENT PATTERN CODES USED IN FOUNDRY

PATTERN COLOR CODE IS TO IDENTIFY THE MAIN BODY AND DIFFERENT PARTS. (RED OR ORANGE IS LEFT AS CAST AS SURFACE NOT TO BE FINISHED)

TYPE OF METAL TO BE CAST ( DIAGONAL BLACK STRIPS TO STRENGTHEN WEAK PATTERN)

IDENTIFY CORE PRINTS,LOOSE PIECES( BLACK ON CORE PRINTS FOR MACHINISED OPENINGS,GREEN FOR LOOSE PIECES)

VISUALIZE THE SURFACE TO BE MACHINED (YELLOW COLOR CODE)

TOP,BOTTOM AND PARTING LINE GATING SYSTEMS USED IN SAND CASTING.(WITH DIAGRAM).THEIR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

TOP GATE:MOLTEN METAL IS DROPPED ON THE SAND THROUGH THIS GATE.

ADVANTAGE IS THAT FAVORABLE TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS TO ENABLE DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION ALSO PASSES THROUGH THIS GATE.DISADVANTAGE IS THAT THE DROPPING LIQUID METAL STREAM ERODES THE MOLD SURFACE.LOT OF TURBULENCE ALSO THERE.

BOTTOM GATE:MADE IN THE DRAG PORTION OF THE MOLD.ADVANTAGE IS THAT THERE IS LITTLE TURBULENCE AND EROSION.PRODUCES GOOD CASTING SURFACES.DISADVANTAGE IS THAT FREEZE CAN SOMETIMES OCCUR WHICH CHOKES THE FLOW.UNFAVORABLE TEMPERATURE GRADIENT WHICH MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO ACHIEVE DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION

PARTING GATE HAVE BOTH THE COMBINED PROPERTIES OF TOP AND BOTTOM GATES.SOME PART BELOW PARTING LINE AND SOME PART ABOVE PARTING LINE.ABOVE IS FILLED ASSUMING AS TOP GATE AND BELOW IS FILLED ASSUMED AS BOTTOM GATE.

STEPS FOR INVESTMENT CASTING

LOST-WAX CASTING STEPS:

MAKE MASTER PATTERN

USE MASTER PATTERN TO PRODUCE MASTER DIE

PRODUCE WAX PATTERNS.

ASSEMBLE THE WAX PATTERNS TO A COMMON WAX SPRUE.

COAT THE CLUSTER WITH A THIN LAYER OF INVSTMENT MATERIAL

PRODUCE THE FINAL INVESTMENT AROUND THE CLOATED CLUSTER.

VIBRATE THE FLASK TO REMOVE ENTRAPPED AIR AND TO SETTLE THE INVESTMENT MATERIAL AROUND THE CLUSTER.

ALLOW THE INVESTMENT TO HARDEN

MELT OR DISSOLVE THE WAX PATTERN TO PERMIT IT TO RUN OUT OF THE MOULD.

PREHEAT THE MOULD IN PREPARATION FOR POURING

POUR THE MOLTEN METAL

REMOVE THE CASTING FROM THE MOULD.

PIPES MANUFACTURED THROUGH CENTRIFUGAL CASTING ( WITH DIAGRAM)

METALS POURED INTO A MOULD WHICH IS ROTATING

THE MOLTEN METAL EXPERIENCES THE CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AND IS FORCED RADIALLY OUTWARD

THE AXIS OF ROTATION COULD BE VERTICAL,HORIZONTAL OR EVEN INCLINED.

ROLLED FORM SECTION DESIGN GUIDELINES WITH DIAGRAM

METHOD TO PRODUCE FINE WIRES.CAN IT BE PRODUCED TUBES?

HEAT TREATMENT FOR FORGING