AMIE RANDOM NOTES FOR EXAM – FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGN & MANUFACTURING

1)

IDENTIFYING NEEDS

  • STARTING POINT OF ANY DESIGN PROCESS
  • TOOLS USED : DISCIPLINED CREATIVITY,ACUTE OBSERVATIONAL POWER & PIN POINT INFERENCE
  • NEED IS AN EMPTY SPACE WHICH ATTEMPTS TO ORGANIZE ITS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITIES THROUGH FULFILLING THE SPACE.
  • PRELIMINARY NEED STATEMENT : GENERAL,CLEAR AND COMPLETE DEFINITION WHICH GO ACCORDING WITH SPECIFICATIONS(FOR NORMAL FUNCTIONING) AND STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE( COMPARED WITH OTHER COMPETITORS)
  • FIRM KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ONES RESOURCES AVAILABLE AND COULD COPE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT

ROLE OF NEEDS IN DESIGN PROCESS

  • STARTING POINT OF DESIGN PROCESS
  • ONCE FULFILLED,CUSTOMER IS SATISFIED

PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION,MANUFACTURING SPECIFICATION & SALES SPECIFICATION

SPECIFICATIONS ARE DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS

  • PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION : (CHARACTERISTICS,CAPABILITIES & LIMITATIONS)
  1. DESCRIPTION
  2. DESIGN LIFE
  3. RATE OF DEGRADATION
  4. OUTPUT
  5. RELIABILITY
  6. EFFECTS OF PERFORMANCE ON ENVIRONMENT
  • MANUFACTURING SPECIFICATION (DESCRIPTION OF EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR MANUFACTURE)
  1. COMPONENT,SUB ASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS
  2. DRAWING AND DETAILS OF TOOLS
  3. CALIBRATION REQUIREMENTS
  4. MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
  5. INSTRUCTION OF PROCESSING AND METHOD OF TESTING
  6. INSTRUCTION OF TESTING INCOMING MATERIALS
  7. SPECIFICATION OF BOUGHT IN MATERIALS
  8. INSTRUCTION FOR ASSEMBLY AND PACKAGING
  9. INSTRUCTIONS FOR STORAGE AND TRANSPORT
  10. INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS AND CUSTOMER TRAINING
  11. DETAILS OF COMPANY,TRADE ,NATIONAL OR INTERNATIONAL STANDARD RELEVANT TO THE PRODUCT.
  • SALES SPECIFICATIONS ( INFORMATION NECESSARY FOR THE CUSTOMER TO KNOW IF THE PRODUCT IS SUITED FOR HIS /HER NEEDS)
  1. AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE PRODUCT’S APPEARANCE
  2. A STATEMENT OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND CLAIMS
  3. THE DIMENSIONS OR OTHER FEATURES NECESSARY
  4. PROMISES AFTER SALES SERVICES,ECONOMY,MAINTAINABILITY,SAFETY AND RELIABILITY.

DESIGN BY EVOLUTION & EXAMPLES

  1. TO OVERCOME SOME DIFFICULTY FACED BY THE USER OR TO ADD SOME NEW FEATURES TO INCREASE ITS USEFULNESS ,DESIGN BY EVOLUTION CAME TO EXISTENCE.
  2. EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS WAS SLOW YET IT WAS USED.

BICYCLES,CALCULATORS,COMPUTING DEVICES,STEAM LOCOMOTIVES, AIRPLANES ETC WENT THROUGH THE EVOLUTION WHEN DESIGNERS TRIED A SERIES OF CONCEPT ONE AFTER THE OTHER.

STANDARD OF PERFORMANCE AND DIFFERENCE WITH STANDARDIZATION

STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE DEPENDS ON RELIABILITY LEVEL,SAFETY,CONVENIENCE IN USE,MAINTAINABIITY ETC

STANDARDIZATION IS FOR THE COMPONENTS THAT MAKES THE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AS PER REQUIREMENTS EASILY

2)

STEPS OF DESIGN THROUGH MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITH AN EXAMPLE.

METHOD OF SEARCHING FOR IDEAS THAT PROVIDE MORE ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION FOR A FUNCTION.A MORPHOLOGICAL MATRIX MAY BE CREATED TO SPECIFY THE FUNCTION AND THE POSSIBLE ALTERNATE SOLUTIONS

STEPS ARE

1.FEASIBILITY STUDY

2.PRELIMINARY DESIGN TO FIND ALTERNATE SOLUTIONS AND CHOOSE THE BEST ONE.

3.DETAIL DESIGN TO REACH THE PROTOTYPE.

4.PLANNING PRODUCTION

5.PLANNING DISTRIBUTION

6.PLANNING CONSUMPTION

7.PLANNING FOR OBSOLESCENCE OF THE PRODUCT.

AN EXAMPLE WOULD BE PICKING ,PACKAGING AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD.

CONCEPT OF DESIGN CHECK FOR CLARITY,SIMPLICITY AND SAFETY WITH SUITABLE DIAGRAMS AND EXAMPLE

CLARITY REFERS TO ORGANIZING CONTENT SO THAT THE IDEA CAN BE CONVEYED.IT RELIES ON GESTALT LAWS WHICH EXPLAINS HOW HUMANS PERCEIVE OBJECTS AND THINGS.SHAPE ,SIZE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTICULAR OBJECT IS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION .

SIMPLICITY IS ACHIEVED BY DIGGING THROUGH THE COMPLEXITY TO MAKE IT SIMPLE.SO ASSEMBLY AND MAINTENANCE SHALL BE SIMPLE

SAFETY LOOKS AT POTENTIAL HAZARDS.THAT ENSURE OPERATORS COMFORT,REDUCE HAZARDS WHICH HELPS IN CUSTOMERS ACCEPTANCE.

PLANNING OF OBSOLESCENCE PRODUCT AS AN IMPORTANT STEP IN PRODUCT DESIGN AND HOW IT IS BEING MADE

DESIGNING A PRODUCT WITH ARTIFICIALLY LIMITED LIFE SO THAT IT BECOMES OBSOLETE AFTER SOME TIME.

THE STEP IS TO ENSURE REPEAT PURCHASES

SHORTAGE IN LIFE SPAN SEEK FOR REPLACEMENTS SO THAT SELLING GOES ON.

BRAINSTORMING SESSION AND ITS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

A GROUP ATTEMPTS TO FIND OUT A WORKABLE SOLUTION FOR A SPECIFIC PROBLEM BY ACCUMULATING SPONTANEOUS CONTRIBUTIONS BY EXPERTS IN THE GROUP.IDEA GENERATION FROM PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS WORKING ON THE SAME PROBLEM TO ARRIVE AT A GENERAL SOLUTION BUT EVALUATION IS NOT DONE.

TO GET THE MAXIMUM BENEFIT ,

EVERY MEMBER IN ROTATION IS ASKED FOR IDEAS

ONE IDEA PER TURN

HAVING NO IDEA YOU PASS TO OTHER

NO IDEA IS STUPID.SO NO CRITICIZATION

HUMOUR ALLOWED SO THAT MEMBERS FEEL FREE TO OPEN UP

LEADER SUMMARIZES AND GUIDE MEMBERS TO HELP IN CLARITY AND EXPRESSION

NO EVALUATION OF IDEAS DURING THE SESSION

PROJECTION AND BLACKBOARD COULD BE USED

VOTING AFTER THE SESSION TO CONSDER THE IDEAS TO PUT FORWARD FOR DETAILED DISCUSSION

SESSION IS GOOD FOR WORK AREAS TO IDENTIFY PROBLEMS

MEMBERS CAN ASK THEMSELVES WHAT?WHY?WHEN?WHERE?WHO?AND HOW?

AN OUTSIDER WHO JOINS IN MAY BE ASKED TO JOIN IN THE DISCUSSION

AGENDA DISTRIBUTED TO MEMBERS PRIOR TO THE MEETING

KEEP RECORDS FOR FUTURE REFERENCES

MODULAR AND ROBUST DESIGN

 MODULAR DIVISION SUBDIVIDES A SYSTEM INTO SMALLER PARTS CALLED MODULES.MODULES CAN BE INDEPENDENTLY CREATED,MODIFIED,REPLACED OR EXCHANGED BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS.

ROBUST PRODUCT DESIGN TRIES TO REDUCE VARIATION IN FINISHED PRODUCTS.SO FINISHED PRODUCT MAINTAIN THE CONSISTENCY EVEN WHEN TH FACTORS INTERFERE WITH THE PRODUCTION PROCESS.

3)

MOLDING SAND CLASSIFICATION & THE BASIC TESTS FOR MOLDING SANDS

GREEN SAND: SILICA WITH CLAY(15-30 %) AND WATER (6-8%)MAKING IT WET TO MAKE A MOLD..

DRIED SAND IS DRIED GREEN SAND.

LOAM SAND: HAVE 50 % CLAY

PARTING SAND IS USED TO HELP GREEN SAND NOT STICK TO THE WALL OF MOLD.IT IS MADE OF DRY SILICA ,BURNT CHARCOAL OR OTHER PARTING COMPOUNDS

FACING SAND:IT IS PUT OVER THE PATTERN BEFORE METAL IS POURED INTO THE MOLD.SO IT BECOMES THE FACE OF THE MOLD SO THAT MOLTEN METAL WONT COME IN CONTACT DIRECTLY WITH THE PATTERN.IT IS NORMAL FLOOR SAND

BACKING SAND IS USED TO FILL UP THE REST OF THE PORTIONS OF THE FLASK.IT CONTAINS SAND WHICH IS REPEATEDLY USED .

SYSTEM SAND:IS USED IN MECHANICAL FOUNDRARIES TO FILL THE FLASK AND NO FACING SAND MAY BE USED.

CORE SAND OR OIL SAND IS USED TO MAKE CORE.SILICA SAND AND CORE OIL IS USED.

PERMANENT MOLD CASTING AND SAND CASTING.COMMON MATERIAL USED FOR SAND CASTING.

PERMANENT MOLD CASTING EXMPLOYS RESUSABLE OR PERMANENT MOLDS USUALLY MADE FROM METAL

SAND CASTING MOLDS ARE MADE USING SAND AND NOT REUSABLE

IMPORTANCE OF PATTERN CODE AND SOME PROMINENT PATTERN CODES USED IN FOUNDRY

PATTERN COLOR CODE IS TO IDENTIFY THE MAIN BODY AND DIFFERENT PARTS. (RED OR ORANGE IS LEFT AS CAST AS SURFACE NOT TO BE FINISHED)

TYPE OF METAL TO BE CAST ( DIAGONAL BLACK STRIPS TO STRENGTHEN WEAK PATTERN)

IDENTIFY CORE PRINTS,LOOSE PIECES( BLACK ON CORE PRINTS FOR MACHINISED OPENINGS,GREEN FOR LOOSE PIECES)

VISUALIZE THE SURFACE TO BE MACHINED (YELLOW COLOR CODE)

TOP,BOTTOM AND PARTING LINE GATING SYSTEMS USED IN SAND CASTING.(WITH DIAGRAM).THEIR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

TOP GATE:MOLTEN METAL IS DROPPED ON THE SAND THROUGH THIS GATE.

ADVANTAGE IS THAT FAVORABLE TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS TO ENABLE DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION ALSO PASSES THROUGH THIS GATE.DISADVANTAGE IS THAT THE DROPPING LIQUID METAL STREAM ERODES THE MOLD SURFACE.LOT OF TURBULENCE ALSO THERE.

BOTTOM GATE:MADE IN THE DRAG PORTION OF THE MOLD.ADVANTAGE IS THAT THERE IS LITTLE TURBULENCE AND EROSION.PRODUCES GOOD CASTING SURFACES.DISADVANTAGE IS THAT FREEZE CAN SOMETIMES OCCUR WHICH CHOKES THE FLOW.UNFAVORABLE TEMPERATURE GRADIENT WHICH MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO ACHIEVE DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION

PARTING GATE HAVE BOTH THE COMBINED PROPERTIES OF TOP AND BOTTOM GATES.SOME PART BELOW PARTING LINE AND SOME PART ABOVE PARTING LINE.ABOVE IS FILLED ASSUMING AS TOP GATE AND BELOW IS FILLED ASSUMED AS BOTTOM GATE.

STEPS FOR INVESTMENT CASTING

LOST-WAX CASTING STEPS:

MAKE MASTER PATTERN

USE MASTER PATTERN TO PRODUCE MASTER DIE

PRODUCE WAX PATTERNS.

ASSEMBLE THE WAX PATTERNS TO A COMMON WAX SPRUE.

COAT THE CLUSTER WITH A THIN LAYER OF INVSTMENT MATERIAL

PRODUCE THE FINAL INVESTMENT AROUND THE CLOATED CLUSTER.

VIBRATE THE FLASK TO REMOVE ENTRAPPED AIR AND TO SETTLE THE INVESTMENT MATERIAL AROUND THE CLUSTER.

ALLOW THE INVESTMENT TO HARDEN

MELT OR DISSOLVE THE WAX PATTERN TO PERMIT IT TO RUN OUT OF THE MOULD.

PREHEAT THE MOULD IN PREPARATION FOR POURING

POUR THE MOLTEN METAL

REMOVE THE CASTING FROM THE MOULD.

PIPES MANUFACTURED THROUGH CENTRIFUGAL CASTING ( WITH DIAGRAM)

METALS POURED INTO A MOULD WHICH IS ROTATING

THE MOLTEN METAL EXPERIENCES THE CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AND IS FORCED RADIALLY OUTWARD

THE AXIS OF ROTATION COULD BE VERTICAL,HORIZONTAL OR EVEN INCLINED.

ROLLED FORM SECTION DESIGN GUIDELINES WITH DIAGRAM

FOR EACH NEW TOOLING REQUIREMENT IN A ROLL FORM DESIGN ,TAKE THE FOLLOWING STEPS

DEVEOP A CROSS-SECTIONAL DRAWING

CALCULATE THE ESTIMATE STRIP WIDTH

PRODUCE A BEND PROGRESSION ,OR ‘FLOWER’ PATTERN

LAYOUT AND DESIGN THE ROLL TOOLING AROUND THE FLOWER

INCORPORATE TOOLING ACCESSORIES

METHOD TO PRODUCE FINE WIRES.CAN IT BE PRODUCED TUBES?

WIREDRAWING IS A METHOD TO PRODUCE THIN WIRES. IN THE CASE OF TUBES,TUBE DRAWING IS USED.

WIRE OR TUBE IS PULLED THROUGH A CONVERGING DIE TO REDUCE ITS THICKNESS.

HEAT TREATMENT FOR FORGING

THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES ARE

  • TO INCREASE STRENGTH,HARD NESS AND WEAR RESISTANCE
  • TO INCREASE DUCTILITY AND TOUGHNESS
  • TO OBTAIN FINE GRAIN SIZE BY RECRYSTALLIZATION ANNEALING,FULL ANNEALING OR NORMALISING
  • TO REMOVE RESIDUAL INTERNAL STRESSES FORMED DUE TO COLD WORKING BY STRESS RELIEF ANNEALING
  • TO IMPROVE MACHINABILITY OF FORGEED COMPONENTS
  • TO IMPROVE CUTTING PROPERTIES OF TOOL STEELS
  • TO IMPROVE SURFACE HARDENING,CORROSION RESISTANCE,HIGH TEMPERATURE RESISTANCE BY PRECIPITATION HARDENING.
  • TO IMPROVE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
  • TO IMPROVE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES BY PHASE TRANSFORMATION,OF THE FORGED COMPONENTS.

VARIOUS TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS WHICH ARE PERFORMED SEPARATELY OR AS A COMBINATION TO GET THE DESIRED PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE AFTER FORGING

1)ANNEALING

2) NORMALIZING

3) STRESS RELIEVING

4) PRECIPITATION HARDENING

5) QUENCHING

6) TEMPERING

7) CASE HARDENING

DISTINGUISH AMONG HOT,COLD AND WARM WORKING

COLD WORKING IS METAL FORMING PROCESS CARRIED OUT AT ROOM TEMPERATURE,

WARM WORKING PROCESS CARRIED OUT AT TEMPERATURE MORE THAN COLD WORKING BUT LESS THAN RECRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURE

HOT WORKING PROCESS CARRIED OUT AT TEMPERATURE MORE THAN RECRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURE.

IMPACT EXTRUSION,ITS APPLICATION & DIAGRAM

IMPACT EXTRUSION IS A DISCRETE MANUFACTURING PROCESS IN WHICH A METAL PART IS EXTRUDED THROUGH THE IMPACT OF A DIE WITH THE WORK STOCK,

What is Impact Extrusion? - Tianjin HENGRUI Plastic Machinery Co., Ltd

IMPACT EXTRUSION IS USED TO MANUFACTURE A VARIETY OF PARTS SUCH AS COMPONENTS FOR MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES.

PRODUCTION OF HOLLOW METAL TUBES WITH ONE END PARTIALLY OR FULLY CLOSED.

IT IS VERY EFFECTIVE AT FORMING FLANGES ON TUBULAR PARTS.

DEEP DRAWING AND WIRE DRAWING DIFFERENCE

WIREDRAWING IS A METALWORKING PROCESS USED TO REDUCE THE CROSS SECTION OF A WIRE BY PULLING THE WIRE THROUGH A SINGLE OR SERIES OF DRAWING DIE.

DEEP DRAWING IS A SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS IN WHICH A SHEET METAL BLANK IS RADIALLY DRAWN INTO A FORMING DIE BY THE MECHANICAL ACTION OF A PUNCH.

HOW CHIPS FORM IN METAL CUTTING.

CHIPS ARE FORMED BY TEARING AND SHEARING

SHEAR PLANE AND PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SHEAR ZONE

CHIPS FORMED BY SHEAR DEFORMATION ALONG A PLANE IS CALLED SHEAR PLANE.

THE NARROW ZONE SURROUNDING THE SHEAR PLANE IN MACHINING IS TERMED AS PRIMARY SHEAR ZONE.THE AREA SURROUNDING THE CHIP-TOOL CONTACT REGION IS CALLED THE SECONDARY DEFORMATION ZONE.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NON-CONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESS EDM,ECM,USM,BASED ON ACCURACY,MAXIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE,SURFACE FINISH AND PRODUCTION OF MICRO HOLES

EDM – ELECTRO DISCHARGE MACHINING (ELECTRICAL)

ECM-ELECTRO CHEMICAL MACHINING(ELECTROCHEMICAL)

USM-ULTRA SONIC MACHINING (MECHANICAL)

MICRO HOLES MRR SURFACE FINISH ACCURACY

EDM FAIR .1 CM3 /SEC .05-12.5 MICRO METER

ECM NONE 1CM3/SEC

USM NONE .005CM3/SEC .2 -1.6 MICRO METER

SOLID STATE WELDING PROCESS.THREE TYpes

FORGE WELDING(FOW)

COLD WELDING(CW)

FRICTION WELDING(FRW)

EXPLOSIVE WELDING(EXW)

DIFFUSION WELDING(DFW)

UTRASONIC WELDING(USW)

TRUEING AND DRESSING.FEW METHODS OF DRESSING AN ABRASIVE WHEEL

TRUING CREATES A SMOOTH SURFACE ON THE WHEEL PERIPHERY ,AND WITH NO EXPOSED GRIT,THE WHEEL WONT CUT.

DRESSING SHARPENS THE WHEEL BY REMOVING BOND MATERIAL AND FRACTURING THE SUPERABRASIVE GRIT TO EXPOSE FRESH EDGES.

ABRASIVE BLOCK DRESSING,PARALLEL WHEEL DRESSING,CUP WHEEL DRESSING,SPECIAL TOOL DRESSIN

DIFFERENT TURNING PROCESS WITH NEAT SKETCHES

STRAIGHT TURNING: IT IS THE PROCESS OF REDUCING THE WORK DIAMETER TO A SPECIFIC DIMENSION AS THE CARRIAGE MOVES THE TOOL ALONG WITH THE WORK,THE WORK IS MACHINED ON A PLANE PARALLEL TO ITS AXIS SO THAT THERE IS NO VARIATION IN THE WORK DIAMETER THROUGHOUT THE LENGTH OF THE CUT.

The experimental straight turning process | Download Scientific Diagram

ROUGH TURNING: REMOVAL OF EXCESS STOCK FROM A WORKPIECE AS RAPIDLY AND EFFICENTLY AS POSSIBLE.

Rough Turning Operations

FINISH TURNING: PRODUCES A SMOOTH SURFACE FINISH AND CUTS THE WORKPIECE TO AN ACCURATE SIZE.

TAPER TURNING:GRADUAL REDUCTION IN DIAMETER FROM ONE PART OF A CYCLINDRICAL WORKPIECE INTO ANOTHER PART.

Taper turning and Thread cutting methods

 

ECM PROCESS

MACHINE WORK PIECES THROUGH THE ANODIC DISSOLUTION OF METAL

TOOL – CATHODE , WORK PIECE -ANODE

A CHARGE TAKES PLACE BETWEN ANODE AND CATHODE WHICH TARGETS SPECIFIC AREAS OF THE WORK PIECE.

THIS CAN BE USED TO CREATE CONTOURS,RING DUCTS,GROOVES OR BELL HOLLOWS WITH NO CONTACT BUT VERY HIGH PRECISION

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UP AND DOWN MILLING

UP MILLING -FEED DIRECTION OF CUTTING TOOL IS IN THE SAME DIRECTION OF ROTATION

DOWN MILLING – FEED DIRECTION OF CUTTING TOOL IS IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF ROTATION

FLUX AND FILLER IN WELDING

FLUX PROTECTS FROM ATMOSPHERE BY MELTING AND COATING THE WELD POOL

FILLER FILLS THE GAPS BETWEEN THE PIECES TO BE JOINED

MIG WELDING PROCESS WITH SKETCH

MIG STANDS FOR METAL INERT GAS

MIG WELDING IS AN ARC WELDING PROCESS IN WHICH A CONTINUOUS SOLID WIRE ELECTRODE IS FED THROUGH A WELDING GUN AND INTO A WELD POOL,JOINING THE TWO BASE MATERIALS TOGETHER.A SHIELDING GAS IS ALSO SEND THROUGH THE WELDING GUN AND PROTECTS THE WELD POOL FROM CONTAMINATION.

MIG welding process - illustration

DRILLING,REAMING,WHEEL GLAZING

DRILL BIT TO CUT A HOLE OF CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION IN SOLID MATERIALS. 

REAMERS ARE DESIGNED TO ENLARGE THE SIZE OF A PREVIOUSLY FORMED HOLE BY A SMALL AMOUNT.

 WHEEL GLAZING IS THE CONDITION OF THE GRINDING WHEEL IN WHICH THE CUTTING EDGES OR THE FACE OF THE WHEEL TAKES A GLASS-LIKE APPEARANCE .

GROUP TECHNOLOGY

GROUP TECHNOLOGY IS AN APPROACH IN WHICH SIMILAR PARTS ARE IDENTIFIED AND GROUPED TOGETHER IN ORDER TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF SIMILARITIES IN DESIGN AND PRODUCTION.

ROBOT AND BASIC ELEMENTS

ROBOT IS A PROGRAMMABLE MACHINE CAPABLE OF CARRYING OUT A SERIES OF ACTIONS AUTOMATICALLY.

BASIC ELEMENTS OF ROBOT ARE

CONTROL SYSTEM: FEED BACK ON CPU CHIP THAT TELLS HOW TO REACT

SENSORS:VIDEO CAMERAS,LIGHT SENSORS,ETC

ACTUATORS:MOTORS TO MOVE PARTS OF ROBOT BODY

POWER SUPPLY:POWERED BY BATTERY,ELECTRICITY,SOLAR,ETC

END EFFECTORS: MIMICKING HAND ACTIONS ACCORDING TO VARYING TASK.

THE MAJOR GOVERNING SYSTEM OF THE ROBOT IS CONTROL SYSTEM.EVERY SYSTEM THAT IS PRESENT IN THE ROBOT CAN BE REPRESENTED IN THE FORM OF A CONTROL SYSTEM,(OPEN-LOOP AND CLOSED -LOOP).

AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE & SENSORS

DRIVERLESS,MOBILE VEHICLES PROGRAMMED TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS IN A FACILITY 

THEY REQUIRE GUIDANCE SYSTEMS TO NAVIGATE THROUGH THEIR ENVIRONMENT AND SENSORS ARE ALSO EMPLOYED BY THESE SYSTEMS.

HONING LAPPING AND SUPER FINISHING

HONING IS A FINISHING PROCESS USED TO IMPROVE THE GEOMETRY OF A PART ,READJUST THE ALIGNMENT OF FEATURES SUCH AS HOLES OR BORES AND PRODUCE A FINER SURFACE FINISH

LAPPING IS A MACHINING PROCESS USED TO ACHIEVE SUPER-FLAT SURFACES AND INCREDIBLY TIGHT TOLERANCES ON PARTS THAT REQUIRE ACCURACY AT THE MICROSCOPIC LEVEL.

SUPERFINISHING IS USED TO REFINE THE SURFACE FINISH OF A COMPONENT TO PRODUCE A VERRY FINE SURFACE WITH AN EXCEPTIONALLY LOW ROUGHNESS AVERAGE.

NC,CNC ,DNC MACHINES

NC OR NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINES PRIMARILY PROCESS NUMERIC INPUT(NUMBERS ,LETTERS OR SYMBOLS

CNC OR COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTOL MACHINE IS TO MAKE A PRODUCT OR PART OF A PRODUCT THROUGH A SPECIAL PROGRAM KNOWN AS G AND M CODES.

DNC OR DIRECT NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE ADMINISTERS CNC MACHINES

INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

 INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM (IMS) IS DESCRIBED AS A PROCEDURE OF PRODUCT DESIGN,PROCESS DESIGN,IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT.

CAPP

COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING (CAPP) IS THE USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO AID IN THE PROCESS PLANNING OF A PART OR PRODUCT IN MANUFACTURING.CAPP IS THE LINK BETWEEN CAD AND CAM IN THAT IT PROVIDES FOR THE PLANNING OF THE PROCESS TO BE USED IN PRODUCING A DESIGNED PART.

(a) In a orthogonal cutting operation, the following data have been observed: Uncut chip thickness = 0.127mm; width of cut = 6.35mm; cutting speed=2m/sec; rake angle = 10 DEGREE
Determine the shear angle, the friction angle shear stress along shear plane, and the power for the cutting operation. Also find the chip velocity and shear strain (12M) (b) How is the chip formed in metal cutting ? Explain the terms “Shear plane” and “primary and secondary shear zone “. (8M) ;cutting force =567 N; thrust force =227 N; Chip thickness = 0.228 mm.
(6) (a) Make a comparative analysis of non-conventional machining process EDM, ECM, USM based on the Accuracy, maximum material removal rate, surface finish and production of Micro Holes